Atopic dermatitis is the totality of skin manifestations (erythematous lesions, itching covered with blisters, erosions, crusts) that occur in people who have a genetic predisposition to develop atopic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis.
The determinants of atopic dermatitis are genetic and immunological. The genetic predisposition is defining, so that 70% of people with atopic dermatitis have a family history of atopic dermatitis.
Depending on the age of the patient and the distribution of the lesions, 4 clinical phases are described: atopic dermatitis of infants and young children ( 2 years), atopic dermatitis of adults and chronic simplex lichen (circumscribed neurodermatitis) .
The onset of atopic dermatitis occurs in childhood in 60% of cases, the number of patients increasing 2-3 times in the last 20 years. The causes involved in this condition can be air pollution, allergens in homes (mites, dogs, cats), smoking of mothers, chemical food additives, some foods (peanuts, shellfish, exotic fruits).
The general measures are represented by:
- avoiding extreme temperatures;
- avoid exposure to irritating chemicals;
- avoiding allergenic foods;
- avoiding aggression on the skin by using soaps and detergents;
- avoid clothing made of wool, synthetic fibers.
Pharmacological treatment includes:
- antihistamines, systemic corticosteroids for severe forms;
- topical dermatocorticoids and immunomodulators;
- antibiotic therapy for skin superinfections.
As an adjuvant treatment, you can use probiotics, leukotriene antagonists, psychotherapy, mountain climatotherapy.